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All Hands on Deck Needed to End the Opioid Crisis
By: Rob Chambers, President, American Council on Addiction and Alcohol Problems
Townhall October 30, 2019
The United States is currently fighting one of the worst addiction problems in its history by way of the opioid crisis. While many Americans are aware of its existence, few likely understand the ongoing issues surrounding this large-scale public health emergency and the extent to which it is undermining the foundations of our great country.
The human and financial toll of this crisis is staggering. In 2018 alone over 47,000 people died from opioid-related overdoses. Meanwhile, a recent analysis from the Society of Actuaries found that over a four-year period from 2015 to 2018, the total economic cost of the opioid crisis was $631 billion.
This crisis is also destroying families and stretching social service programs to the brink. During that same four-year period, an additional $39 billion was spent on child and family assistance programs and education programs. Every day children are separated from their drug-addicted parents who can no longer care for them and are entered into the foster care system. Babies are born with opiate dependencies, forcing them to confront the scourge of addiction right from the start of their lives. The financial costs certainly can’t be overlooked but it is these intangible societal costs of the opioid crisis that might be the greatest concern of all.
This is why it is so important policymakers in Washington work to identify and counter the drivers of today’s opioid crisis. Increased public education, updated prescribing protocols, and a series of legislative and regulatory efforts aimed at shutting down bad actors have helped significantly reduce the amount of excess prescription pain medication in the country. As a result, the nature of the crisis has morphed from a prescription problem into a heroin crisis and now a full-blown fentanyl epidemic.
It is not hard to see why overdose deaths have spiked significantly since the widespread adoption of fentanyl. A synthetic opioid 50 to 100 times more potent than heroin, just 2 milligrams – the equivalent of 4 grains of salt – is enough to cause a fatal overdose. Curbing the supply of this drug will be key to kicking our country’s current opioid addiction.
The largest suppliers of illicit fentanyl are Chinese laboratories and Mexican drug cartels. The two often work in concert to deliver this deadly drug to our streets.
The majority of fentanyl and its precursors are manufactured in Chinese laboratories and shipped to Mexico. From there, the drug works its way into the drug supply many ways before it is smuggled over the border by the drug cartels.
A common activity is to press fentanyl into counterfeit prescription pills, called “Mexican oxy.” Other times the cartels lace heroin products with the synthetic opioid to provide users with a greater high and to pad their profit margins. And other times the drug is smuggled in its raw form into the United States where it is processed and distributed by affiliate gangs within our borders.
The sheer volume of fentanyl entering the country demonstrates how pressing of an issue this has become. In 2018 alone, almost 1,800 pounds of fentanyl was confiscated at the border, a more than 2500% increase since 2015. That is just what was caught—never mind what made it through.
Fortunately, Congress is considering a number of measures to help curb the supply of this drug. Several versions of a bill called the Fentanyl Sanctions Act are currently under consideration. This legislation would not only direct the president to identify foreign traffickers of opioids on an annual basis, it would also provide law enforcement and sanctions targeteers with a number of precision economic and financial tools to cripple their operations.
To truly end this addiction crisis, we must be sure to also take action to help curb the demand for these drugs as well. As Surgeon General Jerome Adams has pointed out, the country could do well to leverage “the special talents and calling of the faith community” when combatting the opioid crisis. The Department of Health and Human Services has already affirmed that states may use opioid response grant funds to support substance use disorder treatment services by faith-based organizations. Policymakers at the state and local level should take advantage of these special resources and Washington should continue to support these efforts wherever possible.
Ending the opioid crisis once and for all is an all-hands-on-deck endeavor. A collaborative effort from law enforcement, elected officials, and members of civil society will be required to end these senseless overdose deaths and ensure a healthy drug-free America.
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50-State Analysis of Drug Overdose Trends: The Evolving Opioid Crisis Across the States (Infographics)
This set of two-page infographics uses estimates from SHADAC’s State Health Compare online data tool to explore the evolving opioid overdose epidemic across all 50 states and the District of Columbia, examining state variation in both the prevalence of opioid deaths and the types of opioids associated with these deaths. Additionally, due to growing concern and evidence that the opioid crisis may be expanding to other non-opioid illicit drugs, we have included data on drug overdose deaths from two types of drugs that are commonly involved in opioid overdoses: cocaine and psychostimulants, such as methamphetamine. ,
The infographics highlight key findings for trends in drug overdose deaths from 2000-2017, show how each state's overdose rates compare to the national average, and provide a high-level comparison of all 50 states' overdose death rates broken down by each of the five drug types.
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Fentanyl now America's deadliest drug, federal health officials say
Doyle Rice, USA TODAY Published 10:21 a.m. ET Dec. 12, 2018 | Updated 1:34 p.m. ET Dec. 12, 2018
Fentanyl is now the deadliest drug in America, federal health officials announced Wednesday, with over 18,000 overdose deaths in 2016, the most recent year for which statistics are available.
It's the first time the synthetic opioid has been the nation's deadliest drug. For the previous four years (2012 to 2015), heroin topped the list.
On average, in each year from 2013 to 2016, the rate of overdose deaths from Fentanyl increased by about 113 percent per year. In fact, the report said that fentanyl was responsible for 29 percent of all overdose deaths in 2016, up from just 4 percent in 2011.
Overall, more than 63,000 Americans died of drug overdoses in 2016, according to the new report, which was prepared by the National Center for Health Statistics, which is part of the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. This is an average of 174 deaths per day.
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How Teenage Vaping Puts Structure in Place for Heroin and Cocaine Addiction
THE RAPID ADOPTION OF E-CIGARETTES HAS BEEN DRIVEN, AT LEAST IN PART, BY A HUGE JUMP IN THE POTENCY OF E-LIQUIDS.
By Indra Cidambi, M.D.
June 13, 2018
U.S. News & World Report
CIGARETTE SMOKING AMONG teenagers is on the wane. While data show smoking among teenagers has dropped over the past few years, it's not all good news. Teenagers are vaping nicotine instead. One in 8 – or 12 percent of – teenagers in New Jersey have tried e-cigarettes and/or hookah at least once. When cigarette smoking and nicotine vaping are added together, nicotine use may actually have increased. The rapid adoption of e-cigarettes has been driven, at least in part, by the huge jump in the potency of e-liquids (both nicotine and marijuana) used in vapes. Nicotine and marijuana act on the brain in ways similar to other substances of abuse and prime the brain for addiction to other potent drugs down the road.
Exponential Jump in E-Liquid Potency
Part of the reason for the adoption of e-cigarettes by teenagers is the exponential jump in the potency of e-liquids (nicotine and marijuana) used in vapes. E-liquid products like JUUL contain nearly 50 milligrams of nicotine per milliliter of liquid, whereas a cigarette has about 12 milligrams of nicotine. THC content in liquid concentrates, used in vapes, can range between 50 and 90 percent, as compared to 20 percent in marijuana. Vaping high-concentration marijuana can deliver a more intense high, but it can also lead to addiction.
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Publications from SAMSHA
Substance Abuse & Mental Health Services Administration
5600 Fishers Lane | Rockville, MD 20857
1-877-SAMHSA-7 (1-877-726-4727) www.samhsa.gov
Tips for Teens fact sheets provide information about the effects of short- and long-term use of cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine, and inhalants. These insightful and easy-to-read brochures provide important facts teens need to know, answer frequently asked questions, and help to dispel common myths about each of the substances covered.
Cocaine is a white powder that can be snorted or dissolved in water and injected to cause a brief high. Cocaine is highly addictive and affects both the brain and body. It can increase the risk of paranoia, anxiety, and psychosis and change emotions. Inventory#: PEP18-01
Tips for Teens: The Truth About Heroin
Heroin can be a white or dark brown powder or a black tar, and is often mixed with other substances that can make it even more dangerous. Heroin slows brain activity, heartbeat, and breathing, and is highly addictive. Inventory#: PEP18-02
Methamphetamine (meth) is a white, odorless, bitter-tasting, crystalline powder that dissolves easily in water or alcohol. It can be made from ingredients found in household products. Meth causes brain changes that affect impulse control and stress, making it harder to stop using meth. It also increases heart rate, blood pressure, and risk for stroke. Inventory#: PEP18-03
Inhalants are gases or fumes from everyday products that are inhaled or sniffed to cause an immediate high by cutting-off oxygen to the brain. Starving the body of oxygen forces the heart to beat rapidly or irregularly, or even stop. Use of inhalants also affects other parts of the body. Inventory#: PEP18-04.